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Terms and Abbreviations Glossary

  • 10 Mil

    A unit of measurement to describe a width or length of 1/100 of an inch, usually referring to the thickness of metal plating on a medal or coin.

  • About Good

    The grade AG-3. The grade for a coin that is just below good. On an About Good coin, only the main features of it are present. Date, mintmark, peripheral lettering, or other features sometimes are partially worn away.

  • About Uncirculated

    Alternate term for Almost Uncirculated.

  • Abrasions

    Areas of a coin where another coin or a foreign object has displaced metal in an abraded fashion.

  • Accumulation
    1. A grouping of a particular date, type, or series. Example: an accumulation of Morgan Dollars.
    2. A random grouping of coins, often as a monetary hoard. Opposite of a coin collection.
  • Adjustment marks

    Scratches which appear mostly on pre-1807 silver and gold coinage. These scratches are actually file marks, made at the mint in order to reduce the weight of a coin so that its metal value wouldn't exceed its face value. As a rule, adjustment marks do not reduce the value of a coin nearly as much as a series of equally visible scratches, which were not "mint-applied".

  • AG

    Acronym for About Good.

  • Album friction

    A less severe instance of album slide marks. Album friction shows as slight rubbing on the high points.

  • Album slide marks

    Lines (often parallel) imparted to the surface of a coin by the plastic "slide" of an album, mostly found on proof coins.

  • Alloy

    A mixture of two or more metals

  • Almost Uncirculated

    The grades AU50, 53, 55, and 58. These coins often look Uncirculated at first glance, but closer inspection will reveal slight friction or rub.

  • Alteration

    A coin that has a date, mintmark, or other feature that has been altered, added, or removed, usually to simulate a rarer issue.

  • Altered surfaces

    Cleaning or other impairment that renders a coin less desirable to collectors.

  • American Numismatic Association

    The world's largest organization of coin collectors and dealers. It is a non-profit organization, chartered by an Act of Congress in 1912. Membership is highly recommended. If you are not a member, you should be! Write to them at: 818 N. Cascade Ave., Colorado Springs, CO 80901.

  • ANA

    Acronym for the "American Numismatic Association."

  • ANACS - (American Numismatic Association Certification Service)

    ANACS originated by offering authentication, and later provided grading services. The grading service and acronym were sold by the ANA and now operate under this name as a third-party grading service.

  • ANACS certificate

    A uniquely numbered opinion of authenticity and/or grade from the ANA Certification Service.

  • Ancients

    Term for coins of the world struck circa 600 B.C. to circa 450 A.D.

  • ANE

    Acronym for American Numismatic Information Exchange. NGC and PCGS certified coins trade sight-unseen through this electronic network system.

  • Annealing

    The heating (and cooling) of a die or planchet to soften the metal before preparation of the die or striking of the coin.

  • Anvil die

    The lower, stationary die. The reverse is usually the anvil die, although on some issues with striking problems, the obverse was employed as the lower die. Because of the physics of minting, the fixed lower-die impression is slightly better struck than the upper-die impression.

  • Arrows

    Design element usually found in the left (viewer's right) claw of the eagle seen on many US coins.

  • Arrows and rays

    Term referring to 1853 quarters and half dollars. The rays were removed in 1854 because of striking difficulties created by the busy design.

  • Arrows at date

    Term referring to the arrows to the left and right of the date. These were added to the dies to indicate a weight increase or decrease.

  • Artificial toning

    Color added to the surface of a coin by heat and/or chemicals.

  • Ask

    The lowest current asking price of a particular coin issue and grade offered for sale.

  • Assay

    To analyze and determine the purity of metal

  • Attributes

    The elements that make up a coin's grade. The primary attributes include marks (hairlines for Proofs), luster, strike, and eye appeal.

  • AU

    Acronym for About (Almost) Uncirculated.

  • Auction

    An offering of coins or other items for sale where the buyer must bid against other potential buyers with no set price. This is in contrast with ordering from a catalog, price list, or advertisement at an advertised price.

  • Authentication
    The process of determining genuineness.
  • Bag

    A generic term for the cloth sacks used to transport and store coins. These came into use in the mid-nineteenth century and replaced wooden kegs. Also refers to the quantity of coins of a particular denomination found in a bag (such as 5000 cents or 1000 silver dollars).

  • Bag marks

    Abrasions which occur on coins that were shipped in mint bags. Most often this term applies to silver dollars, although virtually any coin can have bag marks. Bag marks in no way mean that a coin is not mint state. In fact, even a coin graded Mint State-67 or higher could have some bag marks.

  • Bag toning

    Coloring acquired from the bag while a coin was stored. Cloth coin bags contained sulfur and other metal-reactive chemicals. When stored in bags for extended periods, coins in close proximity to the cloth often acquire beautiful red, yellow, blue and other vibrant colors. Sometimes the weave of the cloth is visible in the toning. Some coins have crescent-shaped toning because another coin was covering part of the surface, thus preventing toning. Bag toning is seen most often on Morgan silver dollars.

  • Barber coinage

    Common name for the Charles Barber designed Liberty Head dimes, quarters, and half dollars struck during the 1890s and early 1900s.

  • Basal state

    The condition of a coin that is identifiable only as to date, mintmark (if present), and type; one-year-type coins may not have a date visible.

  • Basal value

    The value base on which Dr. William H. Sheldon's 70-point grade/price system started. The lowest-grade price was one dollar ($1) for the 1794 large cent - upon which he based his system.

  • Baseball cap coin

    Slang for a Pan-Pac commemorative gold dollar coin. The figure on this coin wears a cap similar to a baseball cap.

  • Basining

    The process of polishing a die to create a mirrored surface or to remove clash marks or other damage from a die.

  • Beaded border

    Small round devices around the edge of a coin, often seen on early U.S. coins.

  • BG Gold

    Term sometimes applied to California fractional gold coins as documented in the Breen-Gillio reference work California Pioneer Fraction Gold.

  • Bi-Metallic

    A coin comprised of two different metals, bonded together

  • Bid

    The highest price offered to buy a particular coin issue and grade either on a trading network, pricing newsletter, or other medium.

  • Bidder
    1. A dealer issuing a quotation on an electronic trading system.
    2. A participant in an auction.
  • Blank

    Another word for planchet, the blank piece of metal on which a coin design is stamped

  • Blended

    A term applied to an element of a coin (date, design, lettering, etc.) that is worn into another element or the surrounding field.

  • Bluebook

    A blue-cover, wholesale pricing book for United States coins.

  • Bluesheet

    Synonym for the Certified Coin Dealer Newsletter.

  • BN

    Short for Brown; refers to copper coins.

  • Body bag

    Slang term for a coin returned from a grading service in a plastic sleeve within a flip. The coin referred to is deemed a "no-grade" and is not graded or encapsulated. Coins are no-grades for a number of reasons, including questionable authenticity, polishing, cleaning, and/or repair.

  • Bourse

    The Paris stock exchange. This term has come to be synonymous with coin show.

  • Bourse floor

    The physical area where a coin show takes place.

  • Braided Hair

    Style of hair on half cents and large cents from 1840 on. The hair is pulled back into a tight bun drawn with a braided hair cord.

  • Branch mint

    One of the various subsidiary government facilities that struck, or still strikes, coins.

  • Breast feathers

    The central feathers of eagle designs, particularly Morgan dollars. Fully struck coins typically command a premium and the breast feathers are usually the highest point of the reverse.

  • Breen

    The late Walter Breen.

  • Breen Book

    Slang for Walter Breen's Complete Encyclopedia of U.S. and Colonial Coins. It was published in 1988.

  • Breen-Gillio

    Numbering system base on the book California Pioneer Fraction Gold by Walter Breen and Ron Gillio.

  • Breen letter

    A written or typed document by Walter Breen rendering his opinion on a particular numismatic item. Prior to 3rd party certification, this was a common method collectors and dealers used to authenticate a unique item.

  • Brilliant Proof

    A particular type of proof coin that has a full mirror surface in the fields.

  • Brilliant Uncirculated

    A generic term for any coin that has not been in circulation.

  • Bronze

    An alloy of copper and tin; special types also contain other elements.

  • Brown

    The term applied to a copper coin that no longer has the red color of copper. It is abbreviated as BN when used as part of a grade or description.

  • BU

    Acronym for Brilliant Uncirculated.

  • BU rolls

    Wrapped coins (usually in paper) in specific quantities for each denomination. Cents are quantity 50, nickels quantity 40, dimes quantity 50, quarters quantity 40, half-dollars and dollars 20, etc.

  • Buckled die

    A warped or distorted die. Can be caused by excess clashing. Often produces coins which are slightly bent.

  • Buffalo nickel

    Slang for the Indian Head nickel, struck from 1913 to 1938. The animal depicted is an American Bison.

  • Bulged die

    A die with a small indentation, formed from clashing. Results in "bulged" coins.

  • Bullet sale

    A trademark of Heritage Numismatic Auctions, referring to a public auction model with an exceptionally short lead-time between the consignment deadline and the sale date.

  • Bullet toning

    See Target toning.

  • Bullion

    Ingots, coins, or other issues that trade for their intrinsic metal value. Only precious metals (silver, gold, platinum, and palladium) are included as bullion. Copper could also technically be considered as bullion.

  • Bullion coin

    A legal tender coin that trades at a slight premium to its value as plain metal.

  • Burn mark

    See Counting machine mark.

  • Burnishing

    A process in which the surfaces of a coin or a planchet are shined through rubbing or polishing. This term has both a positive and a negative context: In a positive sense, Proof planchets are burnished before they are struck. The procedure was done originally by rubbing wet sand across the surfaces to impart a mirror-like finish. In a negative sense, the surfaces on repaired or altered coins may be burnished by mechanical or chemical methods. For example, a high-speed drill with a wire brush attachment is used to achieve this effect.

  • Burnishing lines

    Lines resulting from burnishing. Typically seen on open-collar Proofs and almost never observed on close-collar Proofs.

  • Burnt

    Slang term for a coin that has been over-dipped. On such a coin, the surfaces are dull and lackluster.

  • Business strike

    A coin which was struck for use in general circulation, as opposed to a proof coin produced strictly for collector purposes.

  • Bust

    A portrait on a coin, usually including the head, neck and upper shoulders

  • Bust dollar

    Slang term for silver dollars struck from 1795 through 1803.

  • Buyer's Premium

    A "Buyer's Premium" is charged in addition to the successful bid according to the rate defined in our terms and conditions.

  • C

    Mintmark indicating coins struck at the Charlotte, North Carolina branch Mint.

  • C-Mint

    Term applied to the gold coins struck at the Charlotte, North Carolina branch Mint. This Mint only struck gold coins from its opening in late 1837 until it was seized by the Confederacy. (Coins struck in late 1837 were actually dated 1838.)

  • Cabinet friction

    Slight friction seen on coins (usually the obverse) that were stored in wooden cabinets used by early collectors. To compound the problem, a soft cloth was often used to wipe dust away, causing light hairlines.

  • CAC

    The initials stand for Certified Acceptance Corporation, a company which reviews coins that are already graded and encapsulated by a third-party grading service. If the coin meets CAC's standards as high-end for the assigned grade, it will receive a green CAC sticker.

  • CAM

    Abbreviation for Cameo.

  • Cameo

    A proof, or prooflike coin with exceptional contrast between the fields and the devices. On a cameo coin, the fields are mirrorlike, while the devices give a frosty appearance.

  • Canadian

    Term for coins and other numismatic items of Canada. (as in, "Got any Canadian?")

  • Canadian silver

    Slang term for the silver coins of Canada.

  • Cap Bust

    Alternate term for Capped Bust

  • Capped Bust

    A term describing any of the various representations of the head of Miss Liberty depicted on certain early 1807-1839 U.S. coins by a bust with a floppy cap. The design is attributed to John Reich.

  • Capped die

    An error in which a coin gets jammed in the coining press and remains for successive strikes. Eventually a "cap" is formed on either the upper or lower die. These are sometimes spectacular, with the cap often many times taller than a normal coin.

  • Carbon spot

    A dark discoloration on the surface of a coin. It is possible that this discoloration is caused by a planchet imperfection prior to striking, or it may be caused by improper storage of the coin. Regardless of the cause, carbon spots are often difficult, if not impossible, to remove without leaving pits in the coin's surface. If they are large enough, they may significantly lower the grade and value of a coin.

  • Carson City

    The United States branch Mint located in Carson City, Nevada that struck coins from 1870 through 1885 and later from 1889 through 1893.

  • Cartwheel

    An effect caused by the natural lustre on most mint state, and on some proof coins. When the coin is tilted back and forth, beams of light seem to circle the central devices of the coin. Also a slang term for Silver Dollar.

  • Cast blanks

    Planchets that are molded, rather than cut from strips of metal.

  • Cast counterfeit

    A replica of a genuine coin created by making molds of the obverse and reverse, then casting base metal in the molds. A seam is usually visible on the edge unless it has been ground down.

  • Castaing machine

    A machine invented by French engineer Jean Castaing that added the edge lettering and devices to early U.S. coins before they were struck. Castaing machines were used until the introduction of close collar dies, which applied the edge device during the striking process.

  • CC

    Mintmark used to indicate coins struck at the Carson City, Nevada branch Mint.

  • CCDN

    Acronym for Certified Coin Dealer Newsletter. Address: PO Box 11099, Torrance, CA

  • CCE

    Acronym for Certified Coin Exchange

  • CDN

    Acronym for Coin Dealer Newsletter

  • Census

    A compilation of the known specimens of a particular numismatic item.

  • Cent

    A denomination valued at one-hundredth of a dollar, struck by the U.S. Mint.

  • Certified Coin Dealer Newsletter

    A weekly newsletter that reports the trading ranges of nearly all U.S. coins.

  • Certified Coin Exchange

    The bid/ask real-time coin trading and quotation system owned by the American Teleprocessing Company.

  • Chain Cent

    The popular name for the Flowing Hair Chain cent of 1793, the first coins struck in the newly occupied Mint building.

  • Chapman Proof

    1921 Morgan dollar Proofs supposedly struck for coin dealer Henry Chapman, having cameo devices and deeply mirrored surfaces like most Morgan dollar Proofs.

  • Charlotte

    The United States branch Mint located in Charlotte, North Carolina that only struck gold coins from 1838 until its seizure by the Confederacy in 1861. It never reopened as a mint after the Civil War, although it did serve as an official assay office from 1867 until 1913.

  • Chasing

    A method used by forgers to create a mintmark on a coin. Chasing involves heating the surfaces and moving the metal to form a mintmark.

  • Choice

    An adjective which the A.N.A. applies to coins of MS-65 or Proof-65 grade. Many dealers apply the term to the MS/Proof-63 coins, and call MS/Proof-65 coins "Gem".

  • Choice Unc

    Abbreviation for Choice Uncirculated.

  • Choice Uncirculated

    An Uncirculated coin in grade MS-63 or MS-64.

  • Circulated

    A term applied to a coin that has wear, ranging from slight rubbing to heavy wear.

  • Circulation

    A term applied to coins that have been spent in commerce.

  • Circulation strike

    A coin meant for commerce. An alternate term for Business Strike or Regular Strike.

  • Clad

    A term used to describe any of the modern "sandwich" coins that have layers of both copper and nickel.

  • Clad bag

    Usually applied to a $1,000 bag of 40% silver half-dollars although it also could apply to any bag of "sandwich" coins.

  • Clad Coinage

    Coins that have a core and outer layer made of different metals. Since 1965, all circulating U.S. dimes, quarters, half dollars, and dollars have been clad

  • Clash marks

    The images of the dies seen on coins struck from clashed dies.

  • Clashed dies

    Extraneous design detail often appears on a die as a result of two dies coming together without a planchet between them during the minting process. Coins struck from such dies are said to be struck from clashed dies, or to have die clashes or clash marks.

  • Classic Era

    Term for the period from 1792 through 1964 when silver and gold coins of the United States were issued for circulation. (Gold coins were only minted until 1933.)

  • Classic Head

    An image of Miss Liberty that depicts the style of a Roman or Greek athlete wearing a ribbon around the hair.

  • Cleaned

    When a coin has been cleaned with baking soda or other mild abrasives, it may have a slightly washed out appearance. If the lustre or color of a coin appears even the slightest bit unnatural as a result of past cleaning, the coin is usually described as "cleaned" when catalogued for sale.

  • Cleaning Coins

    DO NOT CLEAN YOUR COINS! Just like any antique piece of furniture, or painting, the original surfaces of a coin are much more desirable by collectors than altered or damaged surfaces. As a result, cleaned coins are worth significantly less money than wholly original coins. Even though a coin is dark in color, does not mean that it is less valuable. The metal in coins often oxidizes and produces a wide array of colors called toning. Some collectors hunt for wholly original coins with this type of toning.

  • Clip

    Slang term for a coin struck from a clipped planchet.

  • Clipped

    Term for an irregularly cut planchet. A clip can be straight or curved, depending upon where it was cut.

  • Clogged die

    A die that has a contaminant lodged in the recessed areas. Coins struck from a clogged die will have diminished or even missing detail.

  • Closed collar

    Alternate term for close collar

  • Cohen variety

    A die variety for half cents, denoted as C-1, C-2a, etc.

  • Coin

    Metal formed into a disk of standardized weight and stamped with a standard design to enable it to circulate as money authorized by a government body.

  • Coin collection

    A grouping of coins assembled for fun or profit.

  • Coin collector

    An individual who accumulates coins in a methodical manner.

  • Coin Dealer Newsletter

    A weekly newsletter that reports the wholesale trading ranges of nearly all U.S. coins.

  • Coin friction

    Term applied to the area resulting when coins rub together in rolls or bags and small amounts of metal are displaced.

  • Coin show

    An exchange composed of coin dealers displaying their items for sale and trade.

  • Coin World

    A leading weekly numismatic publication established in 1960.

  • Coinage

    The issuance of metallic money of a particular country.

  • COINage

    Monthly numismatic magazine.

  • Coins Magazine

    Monthly numismatic periodical

  • Collar

    A metal piece that restrains the expanding metal of a planchet during striking

  • Collector Technologies, Inc.

    Corporate entity that owns and operates Based in Belmont, MA.

  • Commem

    Synonym for "commemorative."

  • Commemorative

    Coins issued to honor some person (D. Boone), place (Mount Rushmore), or event (Special Olympics) and, in many instances, to raise funds for activities related to the theme. Sometimes called NCLT (non-circulating legal tender) commemoratives.

  • Commercial grade

    A synonym for Market Grade.

  • Commercial strike

    A synonym for regular strike or business strike.

  • Common

    A numismatic issue that is readily available. Since this is a relative term, no firm number can be used as an exact cut-off point between common and scarce.

  • Common date

    A particular issue within a series that is readily available. No exact number can be used to determine which coins are common dates as this is relative to the mintage of the series.

  • Complete set

    A term for all possible coins within a series, all types, or all coins from a particular branch Mint. For example, a complete gold type set would include examples of all types from 1795 until 1933.

  • Condition

    The state of preservation of a particular numismatic item.

  • Condition Census

    A listing of the finest known examples of a particular issue. There is no fixed number of coins in a Condition Census.

  • Condition rarity

    A term to indicate a common coin that is rare when found in high grades.

  • Consensus grading

    The process of evaluating the condition of a coin by using multiple graders.

  • Conserved

    Numismatic conservation involves examination, scientific analysis, and a reliance upon an extensive base of numismatic knowledge to determine the nature of a coin's state of preservation and the extent of any damage. Conservation also encompasses appropriate procedures to protect the coin's original appearance and to guard against future deterioration to whatever extent possible.

    Professional conservation should not be confused with "Coin Doctoring", in which an attempt is made to improve the appearance and grade of a coin through deceptive means such as artificial toning and where unaccepted or unorthodox methods are employed. Also not qualifying as conservation is restoration where mechanical repairs are made such as filling holes, smoothing out scratches, and re-engraving of detail.

  • Contact marks

    Marks on a coin that are caused by contact with another coin or a foreign object. These are generally small, compared to other types of marks such as gouges.

  • Contemporary counterfeit

    A coin, usually base metal, struck from crude dies and made to pass for legal tender at the time of creation. Sometimes such counterfeits are collected along with the genuine coins, particularly in the case of American Colonial issues.

  • Continental dollars

    "Dollars" struck in pewter (scarce), brass (rare), copper (extremely rare) and silver (extremely rare) that are dated 1776, but likely struck sometime later. Certain Benjamin Franklin sketches inspired the design.

  • Copper-nickel

    The alloy (copper 88%, nickel 12%) used for small cents from 1856 through mid-1864. These were called white cents during the period because of their pale color compared to the earlier red cents.

  • Copper spot

    A spot or stain seen on gold coinage, indicating an area of copper concentration that has oxidized. Copper spots or stains can range from tiny dots to large blotches.

  • Coppers

    Slang for pre-Federal copper, half cents, and large cents, minted through 1857.

  • Copy

    Any reproduction, fraudulent or otherwise, of a coin.

  • Copy dies

    Dies made at a later date, usually showing slight differences from the originals. Also used to denote counterfeit dies copied directly from a genuine coin.

  • Coronet Head

    Alternate name for Braided Hair design by Christian Gobrecht. This is sometimes also called the Liberty Head design.

  • Corrosion

    Damage which occurs on the surface of some coins, generally due to improper storage. Corrosion is caused when a chemical reaction, such as rust, actually eats into the metal.

  • Cost

    The price paid for a numismatic item.

  • Counterfeit

    Literally, a coin that is not genuine. The term is applied to cast and struck counterfeits as well as issues with altered dates or added mintmarks.

  • Counting machine mark

    A dense patch of lines caused by the rubber wheel of a counting machine. Caused when the wheel spacing was insufficient for the selected coin.

  • Cud

    An area of a coin struck by a die that has a complete break across part of its surface. A cud may be either retained, where the faulty piece of the die is still in place, or full, where the piece of the die has fallen away.

  • Cupro-nickel

    Any alloy of copper and nickel.

  • Currency

    Any kind of money – coins or paper money – that’s used as a medium of exchange

  • D

    Mintmark used to identify coins struck at the Dahlonega, Georgia branch Mint from 1838 through 1861 or the Denver, Colorado Mint from 1906 forward.

  • D-Mint

    Term used for the coinage of the branch Mints in Dahlonega, Georgia, or Denver, Colorado.

  • Dahlonega

    The branch Mint located in Dahlonega, Georgia that struck gold coins from 1838 until 1861 when it was seized by the Confederacy.

  • Date

    The numerals on a coin representing the year in which it was struck. Restrikes (see Restrike) are made in years subsequent to the one that appears on them.

  • DCAM

    Abbreviation for Deep Cameo.

  • Dealer

    Someone who's occupation is buying, selling, and trading numismatic material.

  • Deep Cameo

    Term applied to coins, usually Proofs and prooflike coins that have deeply frosted devices and lettering that contrast with the mirror fields.

  • Deep mirror prooflike

    Any coin that has deeply reflective mirror-like fields. While a general term, it is especially applicable for Morgan dollars.

  • Denomination

    The value assigned by a government to a specific coin.

  • Denticles

    The tooth-like projections which make up the inner rim on some coins. They were discontinued on most U.S. coins in the early twentieth century.

  • Dentils

    Alternative term for denticles.

  • Design

    The motif of a coin or other numismatic item. Barber coins and Washington quarters are examples of designs.

  • Design type

    A specific motif placed upon coinage, which may be used for several denominations and subtypes.

  • Designation

    An addition to the grade of a coin to denote characteristics of the coin not covered by the coin's grade. A designation may refer to the coin's color, strike, or overall appearance. All copper coins have a color designation, but other coins may not have a designation at all, even if one is available for their series. Designations do not affect the coin's grade, but almost always affect the coin's value. Some common examples of designations are Red, Prooflike, Cameo and Full Bands.

  • Designer

    The individual responsible for creating a particular motif used on a numismatic series.

  • Device

    Any specific design element. Often refers to the principal design element.

  • Device punch

    A steel rod with a raised device on the end used to punch the element into a working die. This technique was used before hubbed dies were used as a standard.

  • Die

    A steel rod that is engraved, punched, or hubbed with the date, lettering, devices, and other emblems used to strike a coin.

  • Die alignment

    Term to indicate the relative position of the obverse and reverse dies.

  • Die break

    An area of a coin that is the result of a broken die.

  • Die cracks

    Raised lines, which appear on a coin as a result of that coin having been struck by a cracked die.

  • Die line

    Raised lines, which appear on a coin as a result of polish lines on the die.

  • Die rust

    Pitting or roughness appearing on a coin as a result of that coin having been struck by a rusted die.

  • Die state

    A readily identified point in the life of a coinage die. Dies go through a lifecycle - clashing, being polished, cracking, breaking, etc. These are called die states. Some die varieties have gone through barely distinguishable die states, while others display multiple distinctive ones.

  • Die striations

    Raised lines on coins that were struck with polished dies.

  • Die trial

    The test striking of a particular die in a different metal.

  • Die variety

    A coin which has already been attributed by date, denomination, mintmark, and major variety (such as Morgan Dollar, 1879-S, Reverse of '78) can often still be identified by die variety. Research has been done in many series assigning numbers to the various combinations of dies known to have struck coins of each of the various years and mintmarks.

  • Die wear

    The loss of detail on a coin due to wear on the die used to strike it (rather than wear on the coin itself).

  • Dime

    The denomination, one tenth of a dollar, issued since 1796 by the United States.

  • Ding

    Slang for a small- to medium-sized mark on a coin.

  • Dipped

    A coin which has been cleaned in a soap solution, the most popular of which is called Jewel Luster, is said to have been dipped. The term "dipped" is not necessary in, say, a catalog description of a coin, unless the dipping has caused noticeable dulling of lustre, or an otherwise unnatural appearance (typically on copper coins). The practice of dipping coins is not advisable, except by bonafide experts, and then only on rare occasions.

  • Dipping solution

    Any of the commercial cleaners or "dips"on the market, usually acid-based.

  • Disme

    The original spelling of dime. It is thought to have been have been pronounced to rhyme with ream (the s being silent). This spelling was used in Mint documents until the 1830s and was officially changed by the Coinage Act of 1837.

  • DMPL

    Abbreviation for Deep Mirror Prooflike. An exceptionally deep mirror-like prooflike coin with little, if any, cartwheel lustre.
    Also see: DPL.

  • Doctored

    Typically considered a derogatory term. A doctored coin has been enhanced by chemical or other means.

  • Dollar

    A denomination consisting of one hundred cents authorized by the Mint Act of 1792. This is the anglicized spelling of the European Thaler and was used because of the worldwide acceptance of the Thaler and the Spanish Milled dollar (or piece-of-eight).

  • Double Eagle

    Literally two eagles, or twenty dollars. A twenty-dollar U.S. gold coin issued from 1850 through 1932.

  • Double-struck

    A condition that results when a coin is not ejected from a die and is struck a second time (hence double-struck). Triple-struck coins and other multiple strikings also are known. Proofs are usually intentionally double-struck in order to sharpen their details; this is sometimes visible under magnification.

  • Double(d) die

    A die that has been struck more than one time by a hub in misaligned positions, resulting in doubling of design elements. If shifting occurs in the alignment between a hub and a die, the die will have some of its features doubled. This doubling is then imparted to every coin it strikes. The coins struck from such dies are called doubled-die errors. The 1955 Doubled Die Lincoln cent is one such error.

  • Draped Bust

    The design of Miss Liberty with a drape across her bust. This is attributed to Mint engraver Robert Scot, who presumably copied the design after a portrait by Gilbert Stuart.

  • Drift mark

    An area on a coin, often rather long, that appears streaky or discolored. This is the result of impurities or foreign matter in the dies.

  • Dull

    Term for a numismatic item that lacks luster. Dulling may be the result of natural or artificial conditions.

  • EAC

    Abbreviation for Early American Coppers

  • Eagle

    A gold coin with a face value of ten dollars. Along with the dollar, the eagle was the basis of the U.S. currency system from 1792 through 1971.

  • Early American Coppers (Club)

    A club dedicated to advancing the study of pre-1857 United States copper coinage including Colonials.

  • ED

    Acronym for environmental damage.

  • Edge

    The third side of a coin. It may be reeded, ornamented, or plain.

  • Edge device

    Letters or emblems on the edge of a coin. Examples would be the stars and lettering on the edge of Saint-Gaudens double eagles.

  • EF

    Acronym for Extremely Fine

  • Electrotype

    A duplicate coin created by the electrolytic method, where metal is deposited into a mold made from the original. The obverse and reverse metal shells are then filled with metal and fused together. The edges are then sometimes filed smooth to obscure the seam.

  • Elements

    The various devices and emblems seen on coins.

  • Eliasberg

    Short for Louis E. Eliasberg, Sr., who was the only collector ever to assemble a complete collection of United States coins.

  • Emission sequence

    The order in which die states are struck. Also, the die use sequence for a particular issue.

  • Engraver

    The person responsible for the design and/or punches used to craft a coin.

  • Envelope toning

    Coloration that results from storage in small manila "coin envelopes". Most paper envelopes contain reactive chemicals.

  • Environmental damage

    Corrosion-effect seen on a coin that has been exposed to the elements. The damage may range from minor dulling to severe pitting.

  • Eroded die

    Synonym for a worn die.

  • Error

    An improperly produced coin, overlooked in production, and later released into circulation

  • Essai

    Term for trial or pattern strikings. The anglicized version is essay and literally means a test or trial.

  • Expert

    A specialist in a particular numismatic area. (i.e. A gold expert, a Morgan Dollar expert, a CC-Mint expert, etc.)

  • Extra Fine

    Alternate term for Extremely Fine.

  • Extremely Fine

    Term for the grades EF40 and EF45.

  • Extremely High Relief

    The 1907 double eagle issue designed by Augustus Saint-Gaudens. The coin had so much depth that multiple punches from a powerful press were required to fully bring up the detail. Because of this difficulty, the design was lowered, resulting in the High Relief. This too was lowered to create the Standing Liberty double eagle, or Saint.

  • Eye appeal

    The aesthetic effect a coin has on its viewer. Although quite subjective, like any form of art, that which constitutes eye appeal is generally agreed upon by most experienced numismatists.

  • F

    Abbreviation for Fine

  • Face Value

    The sum for which a coin can be spent or exchanged (a dime’s face value is 10¢) as opposed to its collector or precious metal value

  • Fair

    The grade FR-2.

  • Fake

    A counterfeit or altered coin.

  • Fantasy piece

    A term applied to coins struck at the whim of Mint officials. Examples include the various 1865 Motto and 1866 No Motto coins.

  • Fasces

    Term referring to the motif on the reverse of Mercury dimes. The design consists of a bundle of rods banded (wrapped) around an ax with a protruding blade. The designation "full bands" refers to fasces on which there is complete separation in the central bands across the rods.

  • Fat head

    Term for the Small Size Capped Bust quarters and half eagles.

  • FB

    Acronym for Full Bands.

  • FBL

    Acronym for Full Bell Lines.

  • FH

    Acronym for Full Head.

  • Fiat currency

    Coins or paper money that do not have metal value or are not backed by metal value.

  • Field

    The flat (or slightly curved) portion of a coin where there is no design.

  • Fine

    Term for the grades F-12 and F-15.

  • Finest known

    The best-known condition example of a particular numismatic item.

  • First shot

    Term for the opportunity to buy a numismatic item before it is offered to others.

  • First strike

    A coin struck early in the life of a die. First strikes can be characterized by striated or mirror-like fields if the die was polished. First strikes are almost always fully or well struck, with crisp detail.

  • Five

    Term for a five-dollar gold coin or half eagle.

  • Five Indian

    Term for the Indian Head half eagles struck from 1908 to 1929.

  • Five Lib

    Term for the Liberty Head half eagles struck from 1839 until 1908.

  • Fixed price list

    A listing of items for sale at established prices.

  • Flat edge

    Term referring to the particular specimens of High Reliefs that do not have a wire edge.

  • Flat luster

    A subdued type of gray or dull luster often seen on coins struck from worn dies.

  • Flip
    1. A clear, flexible plastic holder used to display and store coins.
    2. To quickly sell a recently purchased item - usually for a fast profit.
  • Flip rub

    Discoloration, often only slight, on the highest points of a coin caused by contact with a flip.

  • Flow lines

    Lines, sometimes visible, resulting from the metal flowing outward from the center of a planchet as it is struck. Cartwheel lustre is the result of light reflecting from flow lines.

  • Flowing Hair

    The design of Miss Liberty with long, flowing hair that is attributed to Mint engraver Robert Scot.

  • Flying Eagle

    Term for Flying Eagle Cent.

  • Flying Eagle Cent

    The small cent, struck in 88% copper and 12% nickel, that replaced the large cent.

  • Focal area

    The area of a coin to which a viewer's eye is drawn. Liberty's cheek is the focal point of the Morgan Dollar.

  • Foreign

    A numismatic item not from the United States.

  • Four-dollar gold piece

    An experimental issue, also known as a stella, struck in 1879-1880 as a pattern coin.

  • FPL

    Acronym for Fixed Price List.

  • FR

    Acronym for Fair.

  • Franklin

    Synonym for Franklin half-dollar.

  • Franklin half-dollar

    The half-dollar struck from 1948 until 1963 designed by John Sinnock. The coin featured Ben Franklin on the obverse and the Liberty Bell on the reverse.

  • Friction

    A disturbance which appears either on the high-points of a coin or in the fields, as a result of that coin rubbing against other objects. A coin is said to have friction when only the lustre is disturbed, and no actual wear of the metal is visible to the naked eye.

  • Frost

    An effect seen on the raised parts of a coin whereby the metal appears crystallized.

  • Frosted devices

    Raised elements on coins struck with treated dies to impart a crystallized appearance.

  • FS

    Acronym for Full Steps.

  • Fugio cents

    1787 one-cent coins that are considered by some to be the first regular issue U. S. coin. Since they were authorized by the Continental Congress, this would seem to be a logical assumption. However, Congress did not pass the Mint Act until 1792, so an argument for the half dismes (half-dimes) of 1792 as the first regular issue is also valid.

  • Full Bands

    Abbreviated as FB, this term is applied to Mercury (Winged Liberty Head) dimes when the central band is fully separated.

  • Full Bell Lines

    Abbreviated as FBL, this term is applied to Franklin half-dollars when the lower sets of bell lines are complete.

  • Full Head

    Abbreviated as FH, this term is applied to Standing Liberty quarters when the helmet of the head has full detail.

  • Full Steps

    Term applied to a Jefferson five-cent piece when 5½ or 6 steps of Monticello are present.

  • Full strike

    A numismatic item that has full detail. The metal flows into all areas of the die.

  • FUN Show

    The annual convention sponsored by the Florida United Numismatists (FUN) held in early January. Considered by most dealers to be the best coin show of the year!

  • Galvano

    The large metal relief turned in a portrait lathe to become a steel hub.

  • Garrett

    Term relating to the Garrett family. There were two main collectors, Thomas H. Garrett and John W. Garrett, who formed this extensive collection from the late 1800s through the early 1900s. It was later given to Johns Hopkins University and sold in five auction sales.

  • Gem

    An adjective that the A.N.A. applies to coins which grade Mint State or Proof-67. Most dealers, however, apply the adjective to any coin which they grade MS/Proof-65.

  • Gem BU

    Synonym for Gem Brilliant Uncirculated.

  • Gem Unc

    Synonym for Gem Uncirculated.

  • Gem Uncirculated

    See Gem.

  • Gobrecht

    Synonym for "Gobrecht dollar."

  • Gobrecht dollar

    Silver dollars dated 1836, 1838, and 1839 struck in those years and later restruck. These are named for their designer, Christian Gobrecht, Chief Engraver from 1840 to 1844.

  • Gold commem

    Synonym for gold commemorative.

  • Gold commemorative

    Any of the eleven gold coins struck from 1903 until 1926 to honor a person, place, or event. Also, any of the modern United States commemorative gold issues sometimes referred to as modern gold commems.

  • Gold dollar

    Small coins of one-dollar denomination struck from 1849 until 1889.

  • Good

    The grades G-4 and G-6.

  • Grade

    The numerical or adjectival condition of a coin. Rating which indicates how much a coin has worn from circulation.

  • Grader

    A person who evaluates the condition of coins.

  • Grading

    The process of numerically quantifying the condition of a coin.

  • Greysheet
    A synonym for the Coin Dealer Newsletter.
  • Hair

    The area of a coin that represents hair and may be an important aspect of the grade.

  • Hairlines

    Tiny lines or scratches on coins, usually caused by cleaning or polishing. Hairlines are found on virtually all proof coins, and are considered the most important single factor in grading high quality proof coins. They sometimes appear on business strikes as well. Hairlines tend to show up more often on proof-like business strikes.

  • Half

    Synonym for half-dollar.

  • Half cent

    The lowest-value coin denomination ever issued by the U. S., representing 1/200th of a dollar. Half cents were struck from 1793 until 1857.

  • Half disme

    The original spelling of half dime. The first United States regular issue was the 1792 half disme supposedly struck in John Harper's basement using the newly acquired Mint presses.

  • Half Dollar

    The denomination first struck in 1794 that is still issued today.

  • Half Eagle

    Literally, half the value of an Eagle. The Eagle was defined by the Mint Act of 1792 as equal to ten silver dollars.

  • Hammer die

    The upper die that is non-stationary. While usually the obverse, on some issues with striking problems, the reverse was employed as the hammer die.

  • Haze

    A cloudy film seen on business-strike coins and Proofs. It may occur naturally or be added.

  • Heraldic Eagle

    Also called the large eagle, this emblem of Liberty got its name because of its resemblance to the eagles of heraldry.

  • Heritage Value Index™

    The Heritage Value Index™ is based on recent wholesale and auction transactions for NGC and PCGS certified coins. Infrequently traded coins may therefore show outdated prices. These value ranges should not be considered an offer to buy or sell. Many factors go into pricing coins including relative rarity and eye appeal. The listed prices do not apply to coins graded by services other than NGC and PCGS, and even some NGC and PCGS coins may sell for substantially under or over these price ranges. Please use them as an indication only.

  • High end

    A term applied to any coin at the upper end of a particular grade.

  • High Relief

    A coin with deep concave fields, due to its design. High relief coins required extra pressure to be fully struck, and were difficult to stack. Therefore, the few coins struck in high relief by the U.S. Mint (such as the 1921 Peace dollar and the 1907 Roman Numerals double eagle) were each made for only one year.

  • Hoard

    A group of coins held for either numismatic or monetary reasons.

  • Hoard coin

    A coin that exists, or existed, in a quantity held by an individual, organization, etc. Examples include Stone Mountain half dollars still held by the Daughters of the Confederacy.

  • Hoarder

    An individual who amasses a great quantity of a numismatic item.

  • Hobo nickel

    An Indian Head (Buffalo) nickel which has been engraved with the portrait of a hobo or other character, often by a hobo. These are popular with some collectors and some are so distinctive that they have been attributed to particular "hoboes."

  • Holder toning

    Any toning acquired by a coin as a result of storage in a holder.

  • Hub
    Minting term for the steel device that is used to produce a die.
  • Impaired Proof

    A Proof coin that grades lower than PR-60.

  • Incomplete strike

    A coin that is missing design detail because of a problem during the striking process. An incomplete strike may be due to insufficient striking pressure or improperly spaced dies.

  • Incuse

    Opposite of relief, the part of a coin’s design that is pressed into the surface

  • Incuse design

    The intaglio design used on Indian Head quarter eagles and half eagles. The devices on these coins were recessed to try and deter counterfeiting and improve durability.

  • Independent Coin Grading Company (ICG)

    ICG is a grading service located in Englewood, CO.

  • Indian cent

    Synonym for an Indian Head cent.

  • Indian Head cent

    Cents struck from 1859 until 1909 designed by James Longacre.

  • Indian Head eagle

    The Saint-Gaudens designed ten-dollar gold coin struck from 1907 until 1933.

  • Indian penny

    Synonym for Indian Head cent.

  • Ingot

    Metal cast into a particular shape; used in making coins

  • Inscription

    Words stamped on a coin or medal

  • Intrinsic value

    The value of the metal(s) contained in a numismatic item. The United States issues contained their intrinsic value in metal until 1933 for gold coins and 1964 for silver coins. Modern U.S. coins are termed fiat currency.

  • Intrinsic Value (Bullion Value)

    Current market value of the precious metal in a coin

  • Iridescencent
    Probably the most desirable form of toning on a silver or nickel coin. Iridescent toning covers virtually all of the coin's surface, while still permitting all of the coin's natural lustre to shine through with its full intensity.
  • Jefferson nickel
    The five-cent coin struck beginning in 1938 through to this day. Felix Schlag was the designer.
  • Key Date

    A scarce date required to complete a collection, usually more difficult to find and afford

  • Knife edge
    Synonym for wire edge.
  • Lamination

    A form of planchet flaw caused by imperfections in the metal, whereby a thin strip of the metal separates itself from the coin.

  • Large cent

    A large copper U.S. coin - issued from 1793 until 1857 - valued at one-hundredth of a dollar. It was later replaced by a much smaller cent made from a copper-nickel alloy.

  • Large date

    Term referring to the size of the digits of the date on a coin. The use of this term implies that a medium or small date exists for the coin or series.

  • Large Eagle

    Synonym for Heraldic Eagle.

  • Large letters

    Term referring to the size of the lettering of the date on a coin. The use of this term implies that medium or small letters exist for the coin or series.

  • Large Motto

    Synonym for the 1864 two-cent coin with large lettering for the motto "IN GOD WE TRUST". Congress mandated this inscription for all coinage and it has been used on nearly every coin since that time.

  • Large size

    A term referring to the particular diameter of a coin in a series. The use of this term implies that there is a small size with the same motif.

  • LD

    Acronym for large date.

  • Legal Tender

    Coins, dollar bills or other currency issued by a government as official money

  • Legend

    Any phrase that appears on a coin. For example "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA".

  • Lettered edge

    A coin edge that displays an inscription or other design elements, rather than being plain or reeded.

  • Lettering

    The alphabet characters used in creating legends, mottos, and other inscriptions on a coin.

  • Lib

    Term for Liberty Head. (i.e. a $10 Lib, a $20 Lib).

  • Liberty

    A symbolic figure used in many U.S. coin designs.

  • Liberty Cap

    The head of Miss Liberty, with a cap on a pole by her head. This design was used on certain U.S. half cents and large cents.

  • Liberty Head

    The design used on most U.S. gold coins from 1838 until 1908. Morgan dollars and Barber coinage are also sometimes referred to as Liberty Head coins.

  • Liberty Seated

    The motif featuring Miss Liberty seated on a rock first used on the Gobrecht dollars of 1836-1839. This design was used on nearly all regular issue silver coinage from 1837 through 1891.

  • Lincoln

    Synonym for a Lincoln Head cent.

  • Lincoln cent

    Cent designed by Victor D. Brenner that was first issued in 1909 and continues through today, although the reverse design was changed to the Memorial Reverse in 1959.

  • Lincoln penny

    Synonym for Lincoln Head cent.

  • Lint mark

    A characteristic that occurs mostly on proof coins as a result of a piece of lint on the die or planchet during the striking process. This lint creates an incused scratch-like mark on the coin. Lint marks are distinguishable from hairlines by their evenness of depth and lack of raised ridges on their borders. They are also identifiable by their interesting thread-like shapes. Since a lint mark is mint-caused, it has a much smaller effect on the grade and value of a coin than a hairline of equal size and prominence.

  • LL

    Acronym for large letters.

  • Long Beach

    Synonym for the Long Beach Coin and Stamp Exhibition held in Long Beach, California, America's largest commercial coin show. This show is held three times a year, usually in February, June, and October.

  • Lot

    A unique number assigned by an auction house to an item or items sold in a particular sale.

  • Loupe

    A magnifying glass used to examine coins.

  • Luster

    Synonym for lustre.

  • Lustre

    The brightness of a coin that results from the way in which it reflects light. Many different types of lustre exist, and one of the trickiest parts of the grading process is determining whether the lustre of a coin is artificial, natural as made, or diminished through wear, friction, cleaning, or other factors.

  • Lustrous
    A term used to describe a coin that still has its original mint bloom.
  • Major variety

    A coin that is widely recognized as having a major difference from other coins of the same date, design, type, and mint.

  • Market grade

    The grade at which most reputable dealers and auction houses would offer an uncertified coin.

  • Marks

    Imperfections acquired after a coin is struck.

  • Master die

    The main die produced from the master hub.

  • Master hub

    The original hub created by the portrait lathe. Master dies are created from this hub.

  • Matte Proof

    A certain type of proof minted in the U.S. mostly from 1908 to 1916. Gold and silver matte proofs have a dull, granular (i.e. sandblasted) finish without any mirror-like qualities. Copper and nickel matte proofs are really more like Roman finish proofs.

  • MD

    Acronym for medium date.

  • Medal

    A metal object resembling a coin issued to recognize an event, place, person or group, with no stated value and not intended to circulate as money

  • Medal press

    A high-pressure coining press acquired by the U.S. Mint, in the 1850s. It was used to strike medals, and other issues.

  • Medium date

    Term referring to the size of the digits of the date on a coin. The use of this term implies that a large or small date exists for the coin or series.

  • Medium letters

    Term referring to the size of the lettering on a coin. The use of this term implies that large or small letters exist for that coin or series.

  • Medium of Exchange

    Anything that people agree has a certain value

  • Melt

    Term for the intrinsic metal value of a coin.

  • Mercury dime

    Common name for the Winged Liberty Head dime issued from 1916 through 1945. (Also "Merc").

  • Metal stress lines

    Radial lines, sometimes visible, caused by metal flowing outward from the center of the planchet during the minting process.

  • Mil

    A unit of measurement to describe length or width. Equals 1/1000 of an inch, usually referring to the thickness of metal plating on a medal or coin.

  • Milling mark

    A series of two or more small nicks on a coin which result from contact with the reeded edge of another coin, usually in a mint bag. Milling marks are generally more detrimental to the grade than normal bagmarks, because of their severity of depth and greater visual impact.

  • Minor variety

    A coin that has a minor difference from other coins of the same design, type, date, and mint.

  • Mint

    A facility where coins of a country are manufactured under government authority.

  • Mint bloom

    Original lustre that is still visible on a coin.

  • Mint error

    See Error.

  • Mint Luster

    The dull, frosty, or satiny shine found on uncirculated coins

  • Mint set

    A group of Uncirculated coins from a particular year, usually comprising coins from each Mint.

  • Mint set toning

    Term referring to toning acquired by coins after years of storage in their original cardboard holders.

  • Mint State

    Describes a coin that has never been in circulation. Thus, the coin has no wear. A mint state coin may still be weakly struck, and therefore lack the detail of even a lower grade coin. All mint state coins have some imperfections if you study them hard enough. The term "Mint State" may also correctly be applied to coins that were struck as proofs.

  • Mintage

    The number of coins of a particular date struck at a given mint during a specific year.

  • Mintmark

    Letter(s) stamped into a coin to denote the mint at which it was struck.

  • Mis-struck

    Term applied to "error coins" with striking irregularities.

  • Mishandled Proof

    A proof coin that somehow escaped into circulation or was otherwise significantly abused.

  • ML

    Acronym for medium letters.

  • Morgan

    Synonym for Morgan dollar.

  • Morgan dollar

    Term for the Liberty Head silver dollar struck from 1878 through 1904 and once again in 1921. George Morgan was only an assistant engraver, but his design for the dollar was selected over William Barber's.

  • Mottled toning

    Splotchy, uneven toning.

  • Motto

    An inscription on a coin. The most popular being IN GOD WE TRUST, which first appeared on the 1864 two-cent piece and is now is required on all U.S. coinage.

  • Motto

    A word, sentence or phrase inscribed on a coin to express a guiding national principle, such as, “E Pluribus Unum” inscribed on all U.S. circulating coins is Latin for “out of many, one”

  • MS

    Acronym for Mint State.

  • Mule

    A coin or note with a mismatched obverse and reverse. This may mean different types, different denominations, or even different countries.

  • Multiple-struck

    See Double-struck.

  • Mutilated
    A coin that has been damaged to the point where it no longer can be graded.
  • Mylar®

    Trademark for a polyester film used to store coins.

  • New

    Term for a coin that never has been in circulation.

  • New Orleans

    The branch Mint established in 1838 in New Orleans, Louisiana. It struck coins for the United States until its seizure in 1861 by the Confederacy. (Some 1861-O half-dollars were struck after the seizure.) It reopened in 1879 and struck coins until 1909 (actually closed in 1910). Now this facility is a museum.

  • NGC

    Acronym for Numismatic Guaranty Corporation, located in Parsippany, NJ. Currently the leading coin grading service.

  • NGC Census Report

    Quarterly publication issued by NGC listing the number of coins graded and their grade.

  • Nickel

    Popular term for a five-cent piece.

  • No Arrows

    Term applied to coins without arrows by their dates during years when other coins had arrows by the date. (i.e. the 1853 Arrows half dime and the 1853 No Arrows half dime.)

  • No "CENTS" nickel

    Liberty Head nickels struck in 1883 without a denomination. The lack of a denomination was very confusing to the public and led to the "racketeer" nickel scandal.

  • No-grade

    Term applied to a coin returned from a third-party grading service that was not encapsulated. This can be due to questionable authenticity, cleaning, damage, or other reasons.

  • No Motto

    Coins struck without the motto, "IN GOD WE TRUST".

  • No Stars

    Term referring to the Gobrecht-designed Liberty Seated coins without stars.

  • Not Sold

    This indicates an item that did not sell at auction either because it did not receive bids equal to or greater than the reserve (minimum bid) amount set by the consignor, or because the sale was canceled.

  • Numerical grading

    The Sheldon 1-70 scale employed by NGC, PCGS, and other third-party grading services.

  • Numismatic Guaranty Corporation

    The leading third-party grading service based in Parsippany, New Jersey.

  • Numismatic News

    A leading weekly coin newspaper established in 1952.

  • Numismatics

    The science of money. Coins, currency, tokens, inscribed bars, and all related items are numismatic.

  • Numismatics

    The study and collecting of things that are used as money, including coins, tokens, paper bills, and medals

  • Numismatist
    One who studies or collects money.
  • O

    Mintmark used to signify coins struck at the New Orleans, Louisiana branch Mint.

  • O-Mint

    Term used for the coinage of the branch Mint in New Orleans, Louisiana.

  • Obsolete

    A coin design or type that is no longer produced

  • Obverse

    The front (heads side) of a coin.

  • Oct

    Synonym for octagonal - the Pan-Pac octagonal commemorative fifty-dollar coin.

  • Off center

    A coin struck on a blank that was not properly centered over the anvil, or lower, die.

  • Open collar

    A device used to position a planchet over the lower die. It was employed specifically for striking early U.S. coins whose edges had already been stamped with reeding or lettering.

  • Orange-peel surfaces

    Dimpled fields seen on many Proof gold coins, and some Mint State gold dollars and $3 gold coins.

  • Original

    Referring to any aspect of a coin that retains its original state. Original toning means natural, not retoned or cleaned. Original lustre means undisturbed lustre that hasn't been enhanced through artificial methods.

  • Original roll

    A roll of coins, all the same date, denomination, and mintmark, and usually of the same die variety, which seem to have been acquired by the same original owner, probably from the same original mint bag. Generally, all the coins in an original roll will have similar toning and lustre.

  • Original toning

    Referring to a coin that has never been cleaned or dipped. Original toning ranges from a very mild yellow to extremely dark blues, grays, browns, and finally black.

  • Over dipped

    A coin whose lustre has been dulled from too many baths in a dipping solution.

  • Over -mintmark

    A coin struck with a die on which one mintmark is engraved over a different mintmark. In rare instances, branch mints returned dies that already had mintmarks punched into them; on occasion, these were later sent to different branch mints and the new mint altered the die to add its mintmark over the old one. Examples include the 1944 D/S Lincoln Cent, and the 1949 D/S Jefferson Nickel.

  • Overdate
    A coin struck from a die with a date that has one year punched over a different year.
  • Overstrike

    A new coin produced with a previously struck coin used as the planchet

  • P-Mint

    Synonym for the U.S. Mint located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

  • Pan-Pac

    Synonym for Panama-Pacific Exhibition.

  • Pan-Pac slug

    Synonym for the round or octagonal 1915-dated Panama-Pacific fifty-dollar commemorative coins.

  • Panama-Pacific Exhibition

    A 1915 exhibition held in San Francisco, California to celebrate the completion of the Panama Canal.

  • Paper money

    Synonym for currency.

  • Patina

    Synonym for toning.

  • Pattern

    A test striking of a coin produced to trial a proposed design, composition, or size. Patterns were often struck in metals other than the one proposed.

  • PCGS

    Abbreviation for Professional Coin Grading Service, a leading grading service located in Newport Beach, CA.

  • PCGS Population Report

    Monthly publication by PCGS listing the number of coins graded and their grade.

  • Peace dollar

    Synonym for the silver dollar struck from 1921 to 1935. The Peace dollar was designed by Anthony Francisci to commemorate the peace following World War I. 1921 featured another coin designated High Relief. In 1922, the relief was lowered resulting in the Regular Relief type that was issued through 1935.

  • Pedigree

    The listing of a coin's current owner plus all known previous owners.

  • Penny

    Synonym for a one-cent U.S. coin.

  • Peripheral toning

    Coloring - which may be light, medium, or dark - around the edge of a coin.

  • Philadelphia

    The primary U.S. Mint located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. It was first established in 1792.

  • Pioneer gold

    Privately issued gold coins struck prior to 1861. The term is generally associated with the private issues from California and the other post-1848 ore finds in Nevada, Oregon, and Colorado.

  • PL

    Abbreviation for prooflike.

  • Plain edge

    A smooth, flat edge seen mainly on a small-denomination coinage.

  • Planchet

    The blank metal disk, which becomes a coin when struck under high pressure between two dies.

  • Planchet defect

    Any defect of a coin which was caused by the planchet being imperfect prior to the coin being struck.

  • Planchet flaw

    An irregular hole in a coin blank, sometimes the result of a lamination that has broken away.

  • Planchet striations

    Fine, incuse lines found on some Proof coins believed to be caused by polishing of the blanks prior to striking.

  • Plated

    A coin with a thin layer of metal applied. For example, gold-plated copper strikings of certain U.S. pattern coins.

  • Platinum

    A precious metal sometimes used for coinage. The only United States issues struck in platinum are the pattern half dollars of 1814 and modern platinum Eagles.

  • Plugged

    Term used to describe a coin that has had a hole filled, often so expertly that it can be discerned only under magnification.

  • PNG

    Acronym for Professional Numismatists Guild.

  • PNG certificate

    A document (in duplicate: one for the coin owner and one kept on-file at PNG) completed by a PNG dealer that provided a guarantee of authenticity prior to third-party grading services.

  • PO

    Abbreviation for Poor. (Also P).

  • Polished die

    A die that has been basined to remove clash marks or other die injury. Dies used to strike Proof coins were polished to impart mirrorlike surfaces.

  • Polyvinyl chloride

    A somewhat active chemical found in some types of plastic coin flips. Polyvinyl Chloride will cause some coins to tone or turn green over time.

  • Poor

    Synonym for the grade PO-1 (or P1).

  • Pop Report

    Synonym for a report issued by NGC or PCGS, which summarizes the coins certified to date.

  • Population

    The population of a coin refers to how many coins have been certified by a given grading service in that particular grade. The amount higher refers to how many have been certified in a higher grade by that grading service.

    The population data corresponds to the particular coin date, variety, and mint. For example, an 1881-S S$1 Morgan silver dollar graded MS68 currently has a population of 48 coins with only 1 being graded higher. PCGS and NGC provide periodic reports of population data and we always use the latest figures available in giving our descriptions.

  • PQ

    Acronym for premium quality.

  • PR

    Abbreviation for Proof.

  • Premium quality

    A term which describes the very finest coins that fall into any given grade, or that have some claims to a higher grade.

  • Presentation striking

    A coin, often a Proof or an exceptionally sharp business strike, specially struck and given to a dignitary or other person.

  • Press

    Any coining machine.

  • Price guide

    A periodical listing prices for numismatic items. The guide might differentiate between buy and sell (Bid/Ask), as well as wholesale or retail prices.

  • Price list

    Synonym for fixed price list

  • Pristine

    Term describing coins in original, unimpaired condition. Pristine coins are typically graded MS/PR-67 and higher.

  • Professional Coin Grading Service

    A leading third-party coin grading service located in Newport Beach, California.

  • Professional Numismatists Guild

    An organization of Numismatic dealers founded in 1955.

  • Proof

    A specially produced coin made from highly polished planchets and dies and often struck more than once to accent the design. Proof coins receive the highest quality strike possible and can be distinguished by their mirror-like background and frosted foreground.

  • Proof dies

    Dies which are prepared and used exclusively to produce proof coins. Often, the fields of proof dies are highly polished to impart a mirrorlike finish, and the recessed areas are left unfinished to create frosted devices.

  • Proof-only issue

    A coin struck only as a Proof, with no business-strike counterpart.

  • Proof set

    A coin set containing Proof issues from a particular year. A few sets contain anomalies such as the 1804 dollar and eagle in 1834 presentation Proof sets.

  • Prooflike

    A coin that has mirror-like surfaces. This term is particularly applicable to Morgan dollars.

  • Provenance

    Synonym for pedigree.

  • Punch

    A steel rod with a device, a date, lettering, and other symbols on the end which was hammered into a working die.

  • Put-together roll

    An "original roll" that has had the best coins removed and substituted with lesser quality coins.

  • PVC

    Acronym for polyvinyl chloride.

  • PVC damage

    A film, often green, left on a coin after storage in flips that contain PVC. During the early stage, this film may be clear and sticky.

  • PVC flip

    Synonym for a coin flip that contains PVC.

  • Quarter

    A U.S. coin of the quarter dollar denomination.

  • Quarter Eagle

    Literally, one-fourth of an eagle, equal to a two-and-one-half dollar gold coin. The quarter eagle was first struck in 1796, struck sporadically thereafter, and was discontinued in 1929.

  • Questionable toning
    Suspicious color on a coin that may not be natural.
  • Racketeer nickel

    A gold-plated 1883 No "CENTS" Liberty Head five-cent coin ("V" nickel). Legend has it that a deaf-mute gold-plated these unfamiliar coins and would use them as legal tender. Sometimes, he was given change for a five-dollar gold piece since the V on the reverse could be interpreted as either five cents or five dollars! They have also been gold-plated since that time to sell to collectors.

  • Rainbow toning

    Toning which is usually seen on silver dollars stored in bags. A full spectrum of colors are represented, beginning with yellow, then green, to red, to blue, and sometimes even black.

  • Rare
    1. A relative term indicating that a coin within a series is very difficult to find.
    2. A coin with only a few examples known.
    3. A term sometimes applied to all coins of numismatic value (as in: Rare Coin Dealer).
  • Rarity

    The total number of extant specimens of a particular numismatic item. Condition rarity describes the number of specimens in a particular grade plus any in higher grades.

  • Rarity scale

    A numerical-rating system used to quantify rarity. One example is the Universal Rarity Scale.

  • Raw

    Refers to any coin that is not encapsulated by a grading service.

  • Rays

    Term for the lines that represent sun rays on a coin's design.

  • RB

    Abbreviation for red and brown or Red-Brown.

  • RD

    Abbreviation for Red.

  • Real

    A genuine coin.
    Also see: Counterfeit alteration.

  • Red

    Describes a copper coin that still retains 95 percent or more of its original color. (Abbreviated as RD)

  • Red-Brown

    Describes a copper coin that has from 5 to 95 percent of its original mint color remaining (Abbreviated as RB).

  • Redbook

    Synonym for "A Guide Book of U.S. Coins", the annual price guide that is often considered the "bible" of printed numismatic retail price guides. First issued in 1947.

  • Reeded edge

    Grooved notches found on the edge of some coins.

  • Reeding mark(s)

    A mark or marks caused when the reeded edge of one coin scuffs or scratches the surface of another coin.

  • Regular issue

    A coin struck for commerce. There may be Regular and/or Proof strikes, as well as die trials of regular issues.

  • Regular strike

    Synonym for business strike. A coin struck using conventional coin pressing methods.

  • Relief

    The part of a coin’s design that is raised above the surface, opposite of incuse.

  • Replica

    A copy, or reproduction.

  • Restrike

    A coin struck later than indicated by its date, often with different dies.

  • Retoned

    A coin that has been dipped or cleaned and then has regained color - either naturally or artificially.

  • Reverse

    The back or "tails" side, of a coin.

  • Riddler

    A machine that screens out blanks (planchets) that are the wrong size or shape

  • Rim

    The raised area around the edges of the obverse and reverse of a coin.

  • Rim ding

    Synonym for a rim nick.

  • Rim nick

    A mark or indentation on the rim of a coin.

  • Ring test

    A test that may determine whether a coin was struck or is an electrotype or cast copy. The coin is balanced on a finger and gently tapped with a metal object. Genuine coins have a high-pitched ring or tone, while electrotypes and cast copies have little or none. It should be noted that this test is not always an accurate method for identifying electrotype or cast copy coins.

  • Rip

    A slang term for a coin which was purchased below the market wholesale price and is easily resalable for a good profit.

  • Roll

    A set number of coins stored in a coin wrapper. Rolls were originally paper wrappers, and today are typically plastic.

  • Roll friction

    Minor displacement of metal, mostly on the high points, seen on coins stored in rolls.

  • Rolled edge

    A synonym for rolled rim.

  • Rolled Edge Ten

    Common name for a particular 1907 variety of the Indian Head eagle.

  • Roller marks

    Parallel incuse lines found on a coin after it is struck. It is believed that roller marks are caused when the strips of metal are pulled through draw bars (set at a precise distance apart to ensure the planchet blanks will be at the correct thickness).

  • Roman finish

    A scaly finish, similar to that of Satin Proofs. This was an experimental Proof surface used mostly on U.S. gold coins of 1909 and 1910.

  • Round

    Synonym for a round Pan-Pac commemorative fifty-dollar coin.

  • Rubbing
    The barest trace of wear on the high points of a coin. Just a step more severe than "friction" on the scale of adjectives used to describe degrees of wear. Usually, a coin with rubbing has virtually full mint lustre intact.
  • S-Mint

    Term applied to coins struck at the San Francisco, California branch Mint.

  • S VDB

    Synonym for the 1909-S VDB Lincoln Head penny.

  • Saint

    Synonym for the Saint-Gaudens inspired double eagle gold coin.

  • Saint-Gaudens

    Family name of Augustus Saint-Gaudens, the preeminent sculptor of the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. At the request of President Teddy Roosevelt, he began a redesign of the eagle and double eagle coins in 1907 although he died mid-production.

  • San Francisco

    The United States branch Mint located in San Francisco, California that struck coins from 1854 through 1955, and again from 1965 to today.

  • Satin finish

    See Roman finish.

  • Satin lustre

    Fine, silky finish seen mostly on copper and nickel business strike coins. Almost no "cartwheel" effect is seen on coins with satin lustre.

  • Scratch

    A mark on a coin that is more severe than a hairline.

  • Screw press

    The first type of coining press used at the U.S. Mint. The screw press had a fixed lower die, and an upper die attached to a threaded rod. By rotating a series of weighted arms that were attached to the threaded rod, the screw mechanism drove the upper die downward to strike the planchet. The screw press invention is credited to Donato Bramante.

  • SD

    Acronym for small date.

  • Sea salvage coin

    A coin retrieved from the ocean, often recovered from a ship wreck.

  • Seated

    Synonym for Liberty Seated silver coins issued from 1837 through 1891.

  • Seated coinage

    Synonym for Liberty Seated coinage.

  • Second toning

    Natural or artificial toning that occurs after a coin is dipped or cleaned.

  • Semi-common

    A coin that is considered neither common, nor scarce.

  • Semi-numismatic

    Refers to a coin that has a significant bullion value and some numismatic value.

  • Semi-prooflike

    A coin that has almost enough mirror-like reflectiveness to be called "prooflike".

  • Series

    A particular design or motif used over a period of time. This can refer to a single denomination, or in some cases, several denominations.

  • Set

    A collection of coins in a series. This could be a collection of types, or a collection from a particular Mint.

  • Sheldon

    The late Dr. William H. Sheldon who wrote the seminal work on 1793 to 1814 large cents.

  • Sheldon Book

    The large cent book, first published in 1949 as Early American Cents and reissued in 1958 as Penny Whimsy by W. Sheldon, W. Breen and D. Paschal.

  • Sheldon numbers

    The reference numbers (S-1, S-2, etc.) for 1793 to 1814 large cents as documented in the books, Early American Cents and Penny Whimsy.

  • Sheldon scale

    A system of grading which was originally introduced by the late Dr. William H. Sheldon, for the purpose of grading large cents. The system was adapted to all coins in the early 1970's. The Sheldon Scale, as applied today, incorporates numerical grades 1 through 70 to correspond with various descriptive grades as follows:

    • Poor - 1
    • Fair - 2
    • Almost Good - 3
    • Good - 4, 6
    • Very Good - 8, 10
    • Fine - 12, 15
    • Very Fine - 20, 25, 30, 35
    • Extremely Fine - 40, 45
    • Almost Uncirculated - 50, 53, 55, 58
    • Mint State - 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70.
  • Shield

    A design used on certain issues that has horizontal and vertical lines in a shield shape.

  • Shield nickel

    Synonym for the Shield five-cent coin struck from 1866 until 1883.

  • Shiny spots

    Areas on Matte, Roman, and Satin Proof coins where the original dulled surface has been disturbed.

  • Show

    Synonym for a bourse or coin show.

  • Sight seen

    A term meaning that the buyer of a particular numismatic item in a particular grade may view the coin before buying it.

  • Sight unseen

    A term meaning that the buyer of a particular numismatic item in a particular grade offers to pay a certain price without examining the item.

  • Silver
    1. A precious metal
    2. Referring to coins struck in silver (generally 90% silver and 10% copper but there are a few exceptions).
  • Silver-clad

    A coin whose overall metal makeup is 40% silver and 60% copper. Kennedy half dollars (struck from 1965 until 1970) are silver-clad halves.

  • Silver commem

    Synonym for silver commemorative coins.

  • Silver commemoratives

    Coins struck at various times from 1892 through 1954 and post-1982, to celebrate a person, place, or event.

  • Silver dollar

    Silver coin that served as a cornerstone of U.S. currency from 1792 through 1935.

  • Silver nickel

    Synonym for Wartime nickel.

  • Skirt lines

    Lines representing the folds of Liberty's flowing gown on Walking Liberty half-dollars.

  • SL

    Acronym for small letters.

  • Slab

    The plastic holder in which a grading service will encapsulate a coin which has been graded.

  • Slab

    Nickname for some protective coin encapsulation methods, especially those that are permanently sealed and rectangular

  • Slabbing

    The process of encapsulating a coin in a sonically sealed holder.

  • Sleeper

    A coin which is undervalued or underpriced.

  • Slider

    A coin which a less scrupulous individual might sell at a higher grade than it really merits. The term usually refers to a nearly mint-state coin which is, or could be offered as a full mint-state.

  • Slug

    Term for the octagonal and round fifty-dollar gold coins struck during the California gold rush. Legend has it that the term came about when criminals used the two-and-one-half ounce coins wrapped in a cloth to bonk their victims on the head. For an unrelated reason, 1915 Pan-Pac fifty-dollar commemorative issues are also referred to as slugs.

  • Small cent

    Cents of reduced size that replaced the large cent as of 1857.

  • Small date

    Term referring to the size of the digits of the date on a coin. The use of this term implies that a large or medium date exists for that coin or series.

  • Small Eagle

    Referring to the coin design with the plain eagle on a perch, first used on the 1794 half dime and half dollar.

  • Small letters

    Term referring to the size of the lettering used in the design on a coin. The use of this term implies that large or medium letters exist for the coin or series.

  • Small Motto

    Abbreviation for the variety of two-cent coin of 1864 with small letters in the motto "IN GOD WE TRUST".

  • Small size

    A term referring to the diameter of a coin in a series. The use of this term implies that there is a large diameter coin with the same motif.

  • SMS

    Acronym for Special Mint Set

  • SP

    Abbreviation for Specimen Strike.

  • Spark-erosion die

    A die made by an electrolytic deposition method. Because the surfaces of the die are very rough (a result of the process), they must be polished to remove surface imperfections.

  • Spark-erosion strike

    A coin made from spark-erosion dies, often showing signs of pitting in the relief areas as a result of the die surface.

  • Special Mint Set

    A set of special coins that were first struck in limited quantities in 1965 and officially released in 1966-1967. They were intended to replace Proof sets, which had been discontinued by the U.S. Mint in an effort to stop coin hoarding. In 1968, The Mint resumed the issuing of Proofs.

  • Specimen

    Referring to a special set of coins struck at the Mint from 1792 to 1816 that display many characteristics of the later Proof coinage.

  • Specimen Strike

    See Specimen.

  • Split grade

    A coin whose obverse grade is different from its reverse grade. Examples: MS-63/65 or Proof 63/60.

  • Splotchy toning

    Color that is uneven, in both shade and composition.

  • Spot

    A discolored area on a coin. A spot or spots can have a small or large effect on the grade of a coin depending many factors such as size, severity, and placement.

  • St. Gaudens

    Common misspelling of the last name of Augustus Saint-Gaudens. Also used as a synonym for the Standing Liberty double eagle (Saint).

  • Standard silver

    The official composition of U.S. silver coinage, determined by the Mint Act of 1792. Initially set at approximately 89 percent silver and 11 percent copper, it was later changed to 90 percent silver and 10 percent copper.

  • Standing Liberty

    Design motif of Miss Liberty in an upright front-facing position.

  • Standing Liberty quarter

    Synonym for the quarter dollar struck from 1917 until 1930. It was designed by Hermon MacNeil.

  • Staple scratch

    A line on a coin resulting from its improper removal from a cardboard stapled holder.

  • Star

    A five-pointed or six-pointed design element used on many U.S. coins.

  • State quarter

    Synonym for the 1999 and later Washington quarters struck with unique reverse designs for each State. These quarters are to be issued in the order of admittance to the United States. The order for the original 13 colonies was determined by the date which each State ratified the Constitution.

  • Steam-powered press

    A coining press driven by a steam-powered engine.

  • Steel cent

    1943 cents - and certain 1944 cents struck on leftover steel blanks - struck in steel and plated with zinc.

  • Steelies

    Synonym for 1943 steel cents.

  • Stella

    Abbreviation for the experimental four-dollar gold coins struck by the U.S. Mint in 1879-1880. The term comes from the large star on the coins' reverse.

  • Stock edge

    A counterfeit edge collar used for creating fake coins.

  • Store cards

    Merchant tokens, usually composed of copper, created to help alleviate the shortage of small change during the nineteenth century. These were widely accepted in their immediate areas.

  • Stress lines

    Synonym for "flow lines."

  • Striations

    Term for the incuse polish lines on a die which result in raised lines on coins. While these are usually fine, parallel lines, they may also manifest themselves as swirling, or even criss-cross lines. Planchet striations are burnishing lines not struck away by the minting process that are incuse on the coins.

  • Strike

    The sharpness of detail which the coin had when it was Mint State. A full strike is a coin that exhibits the full detail that would appear on the sharpest known examples of that type.

  • Strip

    The flat metal, rolled and drawn to proper thickness, from which planchets are cut.

  • Struck

    Term describing a coin produced from dies and a coining press.

  • Struck copy

    A replica of a particular coin made from dies, possibly but not necessarily meant to deceive.

  • Struck counterfeit

    A fake coin produced from false dies.

  • Surface preservation

    The condition of a coin's surface.

  • Surfaces

    The entire obverse and reverse faces of a coin.

  • Sweating

    A procedure in which coins are placed in a bag and shaken vigorously to knock off small pieces of metal. The bits of metal are gathered and sold as scrap, leaving the original coins to be returned to circulation at face value. A practice mainly employed with gold coins, leaving their surfaces peppered with tiny nicks.

  • Tab toning

    Term referring to toning often seen on commemorative coins which were sold in cardboard holders with a round tab. Such coins have a circle in the center and are said to have "tab toning".

  • Tail feathers

    Refers to the tail feathers on the Eagle on the reverse of certain U.S. coins. Particularly, the Morgan Silver Dollar.

  • Target toning

    Toning effect that resembles an archery target - with deeper colors on the periphery often fading to white or cream color at the center.

  • Technical grading

    A system of grading which only takes into account that which has happened to a coin after the minting process (i.e. the state of preservation). Technical graders often ignore factors such as strike and eye-appeal.

  • Teddy's Coin

    Synonym for J-1776, the unique gold striking of the 1907 Indian Head double eagle.

  • Ten

    Slang for an eagle or ten-dollar gold coin.

  • Ten Indian

    Synonym for an Indian Head eagle.

  • Ten Lib

    Synonym for a Liberty Head eagle.

  • Territorial Gold

    Coins and bars privately struck during the various gold rushes.

  • TF

    Abbreviation for Tail Feathers.

  • Thaler

    The Germanic spelling of the silver-dollar size coins from Europe. The English word "dollar" is derived from this word.

  • Three

    Synonym for the Indian Head three-dollar gold coin.

  • Three Cent Nickel

    Three-cent coins composed of 75% copper and 25% nickel struck from 1865 -1889. The Liberty Head design by James Longacre was copied from the earlier Liberty Head motif by Christian Gobrecht.

  • Three Cent Silver

    Three-cent coin with a star motif that was struck in silver alloy.

  • Thumbed

    Term for a coin that has been doctored in a specific way to hide marks, hairlines, or other disturbances. The thumb is rubbed lightly over the disturbances, and the oils in the skin help to disguise any problems.

  • Tissue toning

    Color, often vibrant, acquired by coins stored in original Mint paper. The toning is caused by sulfur in the paper reacting with the coin.

  • Token

    A substitute for a coin.

  • Toned

    An adjective which describes a coin with toning.

  • Toning

    The coloring which has formed on the surface of a coin as a result of the metal's interaction with outside elements.

  • Tooling mark

    A line, usually small and fine, found on both genuine and counterfeit coins. They are caused by touch-ups to dies.

  • Trade dollar

    A U.S. silver coin issued from 1873 until 1885 that is slightly heavier than the regular silver dollar. Named because it was intended to facilitate trade in the Far East, the Trade dollar was made with a marginally higher silver content in an attempt to gain acceptance in commerce throughout the world.

  • Transfer die

    A die created by sacrificing a coin for a model.

  • Transitional

    Synonym for transitional issue.

  • Transitional issue

    A coin struck after an "official" series ends, or before an "official" series starts. It can also refer to a coin struck with either the obverse or the reverse of a discontinued or upcoming series.

  • Treasure coin

    A coin known to have come from a shipwreck or from a buried or hidden source.

  • Trial strike or striking

    See Die trial.

  • Trime

    Synonym for a three-cent piece.

  • Turban Head

    Synonym for Draped Bust.

  • Twenty

    Synonym for a double eagle or twenty-dollar gold coin.

  • Twenty Lib

    Synonym for a Liberty Head double eagle or twenty-dollar gold coin.

  • Two and a Half

    Synonym for a quarter eagle or two-and-one-half dollar gold coin.

  • Two-cent piece

    Synonym for the Shield two-cent coin struck from 1864 - 1873.

  • Type

    A date or group of dates encompassing all of a particular standard design. Example: Morgan silver dollars. A type collection is a collection of coins formed by one example (usually one of the most common dates) of each type of coin.

  • Type coin

    A representative coin, usually a common date, from a particular issue of a specific design, size, or metal.

  • Type One

    Term for any coin from the first Type within a Series.

  • Type One Buffalo

    A 1913-dated Indian Head nickel with the reverse bison on a raised mound.

  • Type One Gold Dollar

    The Liberty Head design gold dollar struck from 1849 until mid-1854 in Philadelphia and for the full year in Dahlonega and San Francisco.

  • Type One Nickel

    The Jefferson Head five-cent coin struck from 1938 until mid-1942 and from 1946 until today. Also may refer to the Type One Buffalo nickel.

  • Type One Quarter

    The Standing Liberty quarter struck from 1916 to mid-1917.

  • Type One Twenty

    Liberty Head double eagles struck from 1850 until mid-1866. These coins did not have a motto on the reverse and had "TWENTY D." as the denomination.

  • Type Set

    A collection of coins based on denomination

  • Type Three

    Term for any coin from the third Type within a Series.

  • Type Three Gold Dollar

    The Small Indian Head design struck from 1856 until the series ended in 1889. Since the San Francisco Mint did not receive the Type Three dies in time to strike the new design in 1856, the coins from that Mint are Type Two style.

  • Type Three Twenty

    Liberty Head double eagles struck from 1877 until the series ended in 1907. Type Three coins have the motto "IN GOD WE TRUST" on the reverse and read "TWENTY DOLLARS" for the denomination.

  • Type Two

    Term for any coin from the second Type within a Series.

  • Type Two Buffalo

    An Indian Head nickel struck from mid-1913 until the series ended in 1938. The reverse bison is shown on level ground.

  • Type Two Gold Dollar

    The Large Indian Head design gold dollar struck from mid-1854 until 1855 in Philadelphia, Charlotte, Dahlonega, and New Orleans. Since San Francisco did not receive new dies before the end of 1856, they struck Type Two coins during that year.

  • Type Two Nickel

    The Jefferson Head five-cent coin struck from mid-1942 until 1945. The Type Two nickel is composed of silver, manganese, and copper, and has a large mintmark above Monticello on the reverse. These are the first U.S. coins to have a "P" mintmark indicating their being struck by the Philadelphia Mint.

  • Type Two Quarter

    The Standing Liberty quarter struck from mid-1917 until the series ended in 1930. This design features a Miss Liberty with a covered breast, three stars under the reverse eagle, and a more intricate head design.

  • Type Two Twenty
    Liberty Head double eagles struck from mid-1866 - 1876. These coins have the motto "IN GOD WE TRUST" on the reverse and "TWENTY DOL." as the denomination.
  • Ultra Cameo

    A term used, most notably by NGC, to denote Proof coins that have deeply frosted devices and lettering that contrast with the mirror fields.

  • Ultra High Relief

    Alternate name for the Extremely High Relief.

  • Ultra rare

    A coin or other numismatic item that is represented by only a few examples.

  • Uncirculated

    The term “uncirculated” may have three different meanings when applied to a coin:

    1. It can refer to the particular manufacturing process by which a coin is made
    2. It can be used as a grade when referring to a coin’s degree of preservation and quality of the strike
    3. It can point to the fact that a coin has not been used in everyday commerce

    At the United States Mint, the term uncirculated refers to the special coining process used to make the coin, which gives it a brilliant finish. Uncirculated coins are manufactured using the same process as circulating coins, but with quality enhancements such as slightly higher coining force, early strikes from dies, special cleaning after stamping, and special packaging. Uncirculated coins may vary to some degree because of blemishes, toning, or slight imperfections.

  • Upsetting Mill

    A machine that raises the rim on both sides of a blank (planchet)

  • Used
    Term used to describe a coin that has light to heavy wear or circulation.
  • V-nickel

    Synonym for the Liberty Head five-cent coins struck from 1883 - 1912. (The 1913 was struck clandestinely and is not reported in Mint documents.)

  • VAM number

    Unique number (such as VAM-105) assigned to each set of Morgan and Peace dollar dies documented in The Complete Catalog and Encyclopedia of United States Morgan and Peace Silver Dollars. Abbreviated VAM because of the authors Leroy Van Allen and A. George Mallis.

  • Van Allen-Mallis

    Authors of The Complete Catalog and Encyclopedia of United States Morgan and Peace Silver Dollars first published in 1971, and reprinted in 1998.

  • Variety

    A coin of the same date and basic design as another but with slight differences such as variations in date, mintmark size and placement.

  • VDB

    Synonym for the 1909 VDB Lincoln Head cent. Controversy arose over having a non-Mint engraver's initials on a coin, so Victor D. Brenner's initials were removed. In 1918, the VDB was returned to the Lincoln Head cent in a less conspicuous spot on the slanted area at the bottom of Lincoln's shoulder.

  • Very Fine

    Term for the grades VF-20, 25, 30, and 35.

  • Very Good

    Term for the grades VG-8 and VG-10.

  • Vest pocket dealer

    A part-time coin merchant.

  • VF

    Acronym for Very Fine.

  • VG
    Acronym for Very Good.
  • Walker

    Synonym for a Walking Liberty half-dollar.

  • Walking Liberty

    Synonym for a Walking Liberty half-dollar.

  • Walking Liberty half dollar

    U.S. half dollars struck from 1916 - 1947.

  • War nickel

    Synonym for Wartime nickel.

  • Wartime nickel
    Five-cent coins struck during World War II with the composition 56% copper, 35% silver, and 9% manganese. Historic legend has it that the metallic change was driven by a need for nickel to be used in the war effort. However, recent research indicates that the boost to morale by having an intrinsic-value small denomination coin may have played an important part in the issuance of the Wartime nickel.
  • Washington quarter

    Synonym for the Washington quarter dollar.

  • Washington quarter dollar

    Quarter dollar first struck in 1932, as a circulating commemorative coin to celebrate the two-hundredth anniversary of George Washington's birth. It was designed by Laura Gardner Frazier and was a continuing series from 1934 through 1998 (with a special Bicentennial reverse in 1976). For 1999, the obverse was redesigned and the State quarter series begins. Each of the 50 State quarters will have a different reverse design with 5 new issues per year.

  • Watery look

    Term for the wavy finish seen on the surfaces of most close-collar Proof coins.

  • Weak strike

    Refers to a coin that does not show its intended detail because of low striking pressure or improperly aligned dies.

  • Wear

    Visible erosion of metal, usually beginning from the highest points of a coins. Eventually, lettering, details, or entire devices are obliterated. Wear should not be confused with a weak strike. It is possible for a worn coin to have more detail than a weakly struck mint state coin.

  • Wheel mark

    Synonym for "counting machine mark."

  • Whizzed

    An artificial process whereby the surface of a coin is buffed to give it the appearance of having natural cartwheel lustre.

  • Wire edge

    An effect whereby a thin, wire-like section of the rim of a coin is raised above the rest of the rim along the outside. This effect is typically caused by very high striking pressure, and tends to occur mostly on proof and high relief strikings.

  • Wire Edge eagle

    The 1907 Indian Head eagle coin of which only 500 were struck. Technically a pattern, this design featured a fine wire rim and surfaces that were both satiny and striated. An unknowledgeable numismatist will look at one of these specimens and consider it hairlined or harshly cleaned.

  • Wire Edge Ten

    Synonym for the 1907-dated Wire Edge Indian Head eagle.

  • Wire rim

    Synonym for wire edge.

  • With arrows

    Alternate term for arrows at date.

  • With arrows and rays

    Synonym for arrows and rays.

  • With motto

    Alternate term for motto.

  • With rays

    Alternate term for rays.

  • Working die

    A die created from a working hub that is used to strike coins.

  • Working hub

    A hub created from a master die that is used to create the working dies.

  • World Coins

    Coins from countries other than the United States.

  • Worn die

    A die that has lost detail due to extended use. Dies were often used until they wore out, or were excessively cracked or broken. Coins struck from worn dies often appear to be weakly struck, however, they are not caused by low striking pressure.

  • Wreath cent
    Synonym for the second large cent type of 1793.
  • XF
    Abbreviation for Extremely Fine.
  • Year Set

    A collection of all coins issued by a country for any one year (does not necessarily include every mint mark)

  • Zerbe Proof

    Morgan dollars specially struck in 1921 for numismatist Farran Zerbe.

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